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翻译莎士比亚的《To be, or not to be认命,还是不认命》

读书 2021-11-26 16:38:25

《To be, or not to be认命,还是不认命》

The most notable soliloquy in Hamlet is in Act 3,Scene 1: Elisnore Castle,with Claudius and Polonius hidden from view,Hamlet enters to continue his reflections on action and inaction,beingand non being. This famous soliloquy is on a higher philosophical and metaphysical plane than all others.

来源:https://www.academia.edu/8416750/Hamlet_Examined_Through_Soliloquies

我觉得第一句话可以翻译成“认命,还是不认命”【此修改受王若枫的答案启发】

不动,认命的Be,是“stay in the same place or condition”【停在同样的地方或者处境。】; 它对应选择一:忍受悲惨命运的投掷。be 定义来源:The New Oxford American Dictionary

“行动,Not to be, 拼命,不认命”则是另外一个样,它对应选择二: 集中火力摆脱困境,抗争到底。

~~~~

To be,or not to be: that is the question:

认命,还是不认命:关键在于,

Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer

哪一个被认为更高尚:

The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune,

是忍受悲惨命运的投掷

Or to take arms against a sea of troubles,

还是集中火力摆脱困境,

And by opposing end them?

反抗到底?To die: to sleep; No more; and by a sleep to say we end

死亡:睡去;没了;如果睡去意味着结束

The heart-ache and the thousand natural shocks

躯体所承载的疼心

That flesh is heir to,'tis a consummation

和创伤,这是值得诚心期盼的

Devoutly to be wish'd. To die, to sleep;

一种圆满。死亡:睡去;

To sleep: perchance to dream: ay,there's the rub;

睡去:有可能会做梦:嗯,问题来了;

For in that sleep of death what dreams may come

在死亡的睡眠中会出现什么梦

When we have shuffled off this mortal coil,

在我们摆脱作为人的束缚之前

Must give us pause: there's the respect

不得不三思:正是这一点

That makes calamity of so long life;

使得苦难长存;

For who would bear the whips and scorns of time,

否则谁愿意忍受时光的摧残与轻视,

The oppressor's wrong, the proud man's contumely,

压迫者的不人道,自大者的侮辱,

The pangs of despised love,the law's delay,

卑微之爱的刺痛,正义的迟到,

The insolence of office and the spurns

官吏的蛮横,

That patient merit of the unworthy takes,

和对忍耐这种德行的唾弃,

When he himself might his quietus make

如果他自己仅仅用一根针

With a bare bodkin? who would fardels bear,

就可以获得解脱?谁愿意负重,

To grunt and sweat under a weary life,

在繁杂的生活里哼哧、流汗,

But that the dread of something after death,

要不是对死后的世界,

The undiscover'd country from whose bourn

对那个未被发掘的、无人从其边境

No traveller returns, puzzles the will

返回的国度有所畏惧,迷惑了意志

And makes us rather bear those ills we have

使我们宁可忍受现有的不幸

Than fly to others that we know not of?

而不飞向不为人所知的他景?

Thus conscience does make cowards of us all;

就这样顾虑使我们全成了懦夫;

And thus the native hue of resolution

就这样原本坚定的信念

Is sicklied o'er with the pale cast of thought,

被这浅薄的思考病态地终结了,

And enterprises of great pith and moment 【1】

而无比重要的进取心

With this regard their currents turn awry,

其走向也随之发生改变,

And lose the name of action.

失去了行动之名。~~~

【1】great pith and moment :High importance.

拼了命,没了命之后的世界,不可知,未必不会更差【如果死去是重生,早就人人拿针自杀了】,所以还是继续忍着吧,等待契机。这应该是哈姆雷特在思考后的决定:“拼命”失去了行动之名。或许,以后他还会觉得“契机”可能永远等不来……所以思考是浅白无力的,左右动摇的。

后记:这是是我翻译过最难的诗歌了,改了无数遍,现在才感觉理通了点。译完后最大的收获,是对诗歌的理解和诗中力量、逻辑的感受。过段时间再回来读,看看有没有新的理解。

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